slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Atmosphere in Balance 1815 – Tamboro volcano erupts PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Atmosphere in Balance 1815 – Tamboro volcano erupts

Atmosphere in Balance 1815 – Tamboro volcano erupts

125 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Atmosphere in Balance 1815 – Tamboro volcano erupts

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Atmosphere in Balance 1815 – Tamboro volcano erupts Cloud blocked some sun Temps. fell worldwide “Year w/o Summer” in parts of N. America & Europe Composition of Atmos. Early Atmos.: Scientists hypothesize volcanoes main source of early atmos. – CO2,SO2,H2O,N main gasses O came as sun split at 1st, early life helped it Photosynth. – produces Oxygen

  2. What are you and I breathing? No…It is NOT oxygen!! At least, not JUST oxygen!! What we all breathe is called AIR – but it is really a mix of: Oxygen & Nitrogen (about 99%) Argon & Carbon Dioxide (about 1%) Helium, Hydrogen, Neon and other gasses make up trace (almost nonexistent) amounts…

  3. In addition to gasses, the lower reaches of the Earth’s atmosphere also contains a variety of dust particles… …including tiny grains of rock, dirt, pollen, salt from sea spray, and soot from fires.

  4. CO2 O2 H2O CO2 H2O H2O O2 CO2 H2O

  5. Conduction – The transfer of heat energy through collisions of atoms or molecules of a substance. Radiation – The transfer of heat through space in wave form. Convection – The transfer of heat energy in a liquid or gas through the motion of the liquid or gas caused by differences in density.

  6. Heat and Temperature The atoms that make up any substance are constantly moving. The faster they move, the greater their kinetic energy (Energy of Motion). Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules. is the total kinetic energy of all the particles of the substance

  7. Thermosphere Mesopause Mesosphere Stratopause Stratosphere Tropopause Troposphere

  8. The Troposphere: • Lowest layer • Temperature decreases as altitude increases • Rate averages about 6.5 degrees Celsius As heat from the sun comes into the atmosphere, it filters through atmosphere, hitting the lithosphere and being absorbed (≈70%)by the atmos. & Earth, or being reflected (≈30%) back into space. Varies in thickness from 16km at the equator, to 9km at the poles – makes up about 80% of Atmosphere’s mass. Contains most of water vapor in atmos., so most weather occurs here.

  9. The Tropopause: • Minimum temperature (point) of decrease in Troposphere • Above poles, ≈ -60°C in Jan., ≈ -80°C @ Equator • The Stratosphere: • Clear, dry layer • Warms steadily until about 50km (Stratopause) • Increase is due to Ozone presence – • O3 (Oxygen molecules contain two oxygen atoms) • Absorbs ultraviolet rays from sun, releases some as heat

  10. Mesosphere – 50 to 90 km above Earth Little Ozone, so very little Sunlight captured Extremely cold layer, getting colder w/alt. Pronounced MEHZ-uh-sfeer OR MEEZ-uh-sfeer (CHEEZY trick!) - - -- (Me So COLD Sphere)

  11. Thermosphere – Above 90 km, very thin atmosphere BUT…. Those few molecules & atoms get such intense radiation, temps exceed 1000°C(1328° F) Separated into layers of different gases, by weight – Lowest = Nitrogen Next=Oxygen (up to 1000km) Third = Helium (to about 2400 km) Fourth = Hydrogen, thinning into space

  12. Ionosphere: PART of the Thermosphere, 90 – 500 km Air is highly Ionized (charged), formed when ultraviolet rays knock electrons off oxygen and nitrogen molecules & oxygen atoms Solar events are VERY effective upon this layer: Huge sunspot eruptions disrupt radio communications Ionized particles sent out by solar eruptions are deflected by Earth’s magnetic field to North/South poles

  13. At thepoles, the ionized particles interact with air molecules – forming auroras… …colorful displays of light in the nighttime sky.

  14. The Sun radiates energy in ALL directions – Earth receives 1/2,000,000,000 (one-two-billionths) – this is called - Incoming Solar radiation Like this….

  15. Some insolation is: absorbed by gases in the atmosphere unimpeded all the way to the Earth’s surface Scattered by collisions with gas molecules & dust particles. Of THESE, some returns to space – some is absorbed by air, some makes it to Earth

  16. Normally…. BUT….When CO2, SO4, N, Water Vapor & other “Greenhouse” gases accumulate…..

  17. Due to the normal greenhouse effect, Earth stays at a relatively constant temp. One we like! Without it, the Earth would be 33°C cooler. With excess Greenhouse gases, it gets warmer!

  18. Local Temperature Variations – Why does it vary?? I will TELL you WHY! According to Littellians 17:3,”The intensity with which Insolation cometh dependeth upon the time of day, The latitude, and the time of year. The characteristics of a material affect both how much insolation is absorbed and how the temp. is affected. On a sunny Day, dark pavement becomes hotter than grass.

  19. Light is most concentrated from An overhead source. Light hitting at an angle is less concentrated

  20. Heatenergy & water Humidity Dew Point Clouds & Fog AtmosphericMoisture Cloud Formation Classification of Clouds Fog Precipitation Forms of Precipitation Causes of Precipitation Measuring Precipitation

  21. Absorbs Heat Water Vapor (gas) R e l e a s e s H e a t A b s o r b s H e a t Releases Heat Sublimation Evaporation Ice (solid) Releases Heat Absorbs Heat Water (liquid)

  22. Relative Humidity At Present Saturated A ratio – The mass of water vapor present in relation to the mass of water vapor the air can hold.

  23. Dew Point The temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation. At any temperature below that, water vapor condenses to a liquid, or sublimates to a solid

  24. Warm air that comes into contact with colder surfaces then cools to the dew point, will undergo a form of condensation that results in DEW Most often, these surfaces are grass, leaves, and other objects close to the ground that lose heat – that’s why you find it on your yard in the morning

  25. Frost is water vapor that has changed directly into solid ice crystals because the temperature dropped below freezing

  26. Cloud Formation – Condensation Nuclei – millions of suspended particles of ice, salt, dust, and other solid materials Convective Cooling – the lowering of the temperature of a mass of air due to its rising and expanding Adiabatic Temperature Changes – temperature changes that result solely from the expansion or compression of air Condensation Level – air reaches a level where its temperature is lower than its dew point Advective Cooling – warm, moist air carried across a cold ocean or land. The water or land absorbs the heat

  27. Most extensive in the sky • Base is low, almost touching Earth • NIMBOstratus is dark, low, and brings rain or snow • ALTOstratus is thin and higher – in the middle altitudes

  28. Puffy, vertical – growing • “Piled” or “Heaped” • Warm, moist air rises and cools • Flat bottom of cloud is the level of the condensation • Form in fair weather • Look like popcorn

  29. Highest in the sky, above 6,000 meters • Wispy, feathery • Made of ice crystals

  30. Air near the surface of the Earth is cooled • Air in contact with Earth cools, water condenses: This is RADIATION fog. • ADVECTION fog – warm, moist air moves across cooler surfaces. • UPSLOPE fog – Adiabatic cooling of air moving up land slopes • STEAM fog – A shallow layer formed as cool air moves over warm water (streams, etc.)

  31. Forms of Precipitation - Sleet – Rain falls through a layer of freezing air, forms clear ice pellets Glaze Ice – Thick sheets of ice formed by sleet Hail – Solid lumps of ice. Rain is carried up in clouds by convection currents, freeze, then fall.

  32. Drizzle is very fine water drops falling slowly and close together Sometimes, rain falls into a cold layer of air – if they become supercooled and freeze – that is called Sleet Brrrrr!! 0˚ Hail is precipitation in the form of clumps of ice. Kept aloft by strong updrafts, it grows by collecting smaller ice particles, cloud droplets, and supercooled raindrops until it is too heavy…..

  33. Causes of precipitation: Most cloud droplets have a diameter of 20 micrometers. One micrometer = 0.000001 meter As a droplet falls through the cloud, it must increase to 100x its normal diameter HOW??

  34. Coalesence – As large droplets drift downward through the cloud, they collide and stick with other droplets, growing in size. Supercooling – Water between the temperatures of 0° and -10° Celsius, but not frozen. This is because there are too few FREEZING NUCLEI.

  35. Cloud Seeding Meteorologists place freezing nuclei in supercooled Clouds.