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Bolshevik Seizes Power

Bolshevik Seizes Power

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Bolshevik Seizes Power

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  1. Bolshevik Seizes Power Events leading to the October Revolution

  2. Problems facing the Provisional Government • Land - Peasants demand land • Hunger - The workers in the cities were demanding food • The war - fight on or make peace • Revolutionaries - how to stop the spread of their influence • The Army - needed loyalty of the army

  3. Response of the Government • The Government promised land reforms but gave no date • The Government could not guarantee food supplies as the Soviets controlled railways • The government promised political reform in an attempt to stop revolutionaries. They failed to take any positive action. • The troops in Petrograd were now under the control of the Soviet and refused to obey the government

  4. Results • Peasants angry with the Government started to seize land • Workers joined the Bolsheviks • The Bolsheviks and other groups gathered support • The Government was losing control to the Petrograd Soviet

  5. Activity How did the Bolshevik gained power in Oct 1917? Do a timeline of the events that led to the October/ November Revolution You have 15 minutes to do so.

  6. Timeline • March - Petrograd Soviet issues Order No 1 • April - Lenin returns issues April Theses • June - Failure of the June Offensive • July - The July Days - Lenin flees • Aug - Kornilov Revolt • Sept - Bolsheviks win control of the Soviet • Oct - Trotsky become chairman of Soviet. Lenin returns • Oct 24 - 26 Bolshevik revolution

  7. Petrograd Soviet – Order No 1 Armed forces are subordinate to the Petrograd Soviet in all their political actions. Orders of Military Commission of the Duma are to be carried out only if they do not conflict with the orders of the Petrograd Soviet. All weapons to remain under the control of company and battalion committees, and in no circumstances to be handed over to officers.

  8. Lenin returns Peace Land Bread All power to the Soviets • Lenin return from Switzerland with German assistance and issues his April theses • This called for • Overthrow of Government • End to war • Soviets to form new government • Land given to peasants • State to control factories and banks

  9. Russia : 1917 • June The Provisional Government uses troops to attack Germany. Russia is badly defeated. Demands for peace are made. • July 16 – 18 Demonstrations in Petrograd turn into a premature Bolshevik uprising against the Provisional Government. Referred to as ‘The July Days’.

  10. July It fails to overthrow the government and Lenin flees to Finland. Leon Trotsky creates the ‘Red Guards’, the Bolshevik military force. Trotsky becomes the Chairman of the increasingly influential Bolshevik administration and political centre – The Petrograd Soviet. Remember – Whoever controlled the soviet could also control Russia….

  11. Results Riots quelled Bolsheviks accused of being German agents. Bolshevik leaders arrested . Lenin escapes to Finland Bolsheviks weakened but seen as main revolutionary group Events The failure of the June Offensive led to widespread mutinies The Bolsheviks supported but did not lead The July Days

  12. August 1Kerensky, the leader of the Provisional Government appoints General Kornilov as the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian army. • September 10 Right wing coup led by General Kornilov collapses in defeat. Bolsheviks and Red Guards have some of their old leaders released and armed by Kerensky in order to protect Petrograd. Kornilov’s men are hungry and scared and they mutiny to join the Petrograd soviet.

  13. Meanwhile: Lenin is busy writing letters to other Bolshevik leaders urging them to make preparations for a revolution. The Bolsheviks’ popularity grows steadily and they are now a real power in Russia. Lenin encourages Trotsky to prepare his men for a violent seizure of power.

  14. Events Aug 1917 General Kornilov attempts a coup Kerensky is forced to ask the Bolsheviks for help. Bolshevik leaders are released and the Red Guard is given weapons Bolsheviks defeat Kornilov Results Bolsheviks seen as heroes. Popularity increased and won majority in the Petrograd Soviet Became a well armed force The Kornilov Revolt

  15. October 23 The Bolshevik Central Committee under Lenin vote for revolutionary measures. At this time in Russia, prices of goods are ten times higher than they were before the Great War. People are starving, food and supplies are not getting through (no thanks to the Provisional Government). All the while, Lenin is busy formulating his strategy – making the plans for the revolution.

  16. November 3 Trotsky’s Military Revolutionary Committee take control of the Petrograd garrison after the mutiny in the July Days.

  17. November 6 Red Guards begin to occupy strategic government buildings across Petrograd. Kerensky flees. Provisional Government barricade themselves into the Winter Palace. Bolsheviks storm the palace during the night and around 2am they arrest the government ministers. The bloodless coup is over.

  18. Why were the Bolsheviks successful? Role of Lenin Organised party Published Pravda Avoided capture and organised the coup. Popular slogans to raise moral and public awareness Role of Trotsky Joined Bolsheviks after July Days Masterminded the events of the coup Great military leader organised the Red Guard Provisional Government Kerensky new of Trotsky's plan but had lost support of the army and so was helpless

  19. After the seizure of power… • On the 8th November 1917, the All Russian Congress of Soviets give power to the 15 Bolshevik Commissars under the leadership of Lenin. But, why were they able to seize power?

  20. Why were the Bolsheviks able to seize power? • They had a strong political and economic centre in the Petrograd Soviet. • They had their own armed forces, the ‘Red Guards’. • They were organised and disciplined and had clear planned strategies. • They were realistic, practical and clever in setting their short term goals. • The Provisional Government was weak and ineffective. • Lenin was an inspiring leader with vision, clarity and ability.

  21. The Bolsheviks take power The Bolsheviks took control of the government in an almost bloodless coup between Oct 24 and 26 1917. Land Land taken from Church, Nobility etc and given to peasants. Land not taken over by the State (yet) Peace Lenin ends the war sends Trotsky to negotiate with Germany. Treaty of Brest-Litvosk The first decrees Factories All factories put under control of workers committees Press All non -Bolshevik papers were banned Establishes the CHEKA

  22. Questions Is this a revolution? ‘The Bolshevik did not seize power; they simply picked it up.’ How accurate is this assessment of the October/November Revolution in 1917?

  23. Say Something Significant Choose a sentence-starter and make the most complex statement you can about the causes of the October 1917 Russian Revolution. Cause and effect:“The main reason …..” Pattern: “Throughout the Russian Revolution people keep ….” Turning point:“Everything changed when …..” Simple judgement: “The smartest choice was ……..”