Jefferson as President Chapter 9, Section 1
Election of 1800 • To insure a majority vote, originally the Electoral College would vote for two candidates for president. • The Democratic-Republicans set up a plan to take advantage of this system.
Election of 1800 • Each state that wanted to elect Thomas Jefferson as president, would also cast their vote with his running mate, Aaron Burr. • The plan would give them a Democratic-Republican as President AND Vice President.
Election of 1800 • Unfortunately, the election ended in a tie. • Aaron Burr- 73 votes • Thomas Jefferson- 73 votes • In turn, the Federalists would get to select between the two nominees. • This also leads to the 12th Amendment • Sets up how presidents/vice presidents are elected today.
Election of 1800 • With the help of Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson is selected among the two. • Hamilton despised Aaron Burr. So he convinced the Federalists to pick Jefferson. • “I would much rather have someone with wrong principles than someone devoid of any.”
The Election of 1800 • On March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the third president of the United States. • Aaron Burr becomes the new vice-president of the United States.
Hamilton and Burr Rivalry • Fast Forward to 1804: Aaron Burr runs for governor of New York. • Hamilton continues to slander Burr’s philosophy. • Burr lost the election in 1804 and blamed Hamilton.
Duel! • Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel. • In July 1804, Burr and Hamilton engage in a pistol duel. Aaron Burr shot Hamilton and he died the next day. • Burr’s political career is ruined.
Jefferson’s Plans • Jefferson’s political views differed strongly from the presidents before him. • Known as the Revolution of 1800 • His philosophy was based around 4 major beliefs:
1. Small Government • The federal government should be kept small. • Jefferson believed that the government should stay out of the everyday lives of citizens. • Jefferson’s ideas were strongly based on the French philosophy of laissez-faire which means “let it be.”
2. Farming • The strength of the nation was its independent farmers • Jefferson wanted to build an agrarian society (nation of farmers) • Farmers are self sufficient (no need for a strong government)
3. Expand • Expand the nation westward to acquire more land. • People would need their own land if he was to build a nation of farmers
4. Decrease Military • Jefferson distrusted standing armies and wanted to reduce the size of the military. • He believed that a large military could be used against the people
Jefferson’s Cabinet • For his secretary of state, Jefferson chose his good friend James Madison. • For his secretary of treasury he chose Albert Gallatin.
Jefferson’s Cabinet and Expense Reduction • Jefferson hoped to reduce the national debt and hold true to his policies. • Jefferson cut the military by 1/3 and reduced the navy from 25 battleships to 7 ships. This helped them significantly lower the national debt. • Jefferson also persuaded Congress to repeal all federal internal taxes including the whiskey tax.
Judiciary Act of 1801 • Jefferson’s first problem • On his last day in office, John Adams appointed hundreds of Federalists to judiciary positions • Allowed Federalists to control the court system. • Jefferson claimed these appointments were invalid. • Appointments could not take effect until the papers (commissions) were delivered. • When Jefferson became president he told Madison not to deliver the appointments. These actions lead to Marbury v. Madison.
Marbury v. madison • 1.) The constitution is the supreme law of the land. • 2.) When there is a conflict between the Constitution and any other law, the Constitution must be followed. • 3.) The judicial branch has the duty to uphold the Constitution. It must be able to determine when a federal law conflicts with the Constitution. • 4.) Adams appointment of judges was unconstitutional. • 5.) The Supreme Court can overturn presidential actions that are deemed “unconstitutional”.
Judicial Review • With his decision, Chief justice John Marshall set out the principles of judicial review. • They decided that the Supreme Court had the power to overrule presidential actions and laws that were unconstitutional.