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  1. 1968-1979 and 1980-1984 Liberal PIERRE ELLIOTT TRUDEAU

  2. “TRUDEAUMANIA” • 48 years old, unwed and much younger than most politicians of the time • brought youthfulness and promise of change

  3. Trudeau as Minister of Justice • Wrote, sponsored and saw a bill passed that altered the justice system in Canada: Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968-69 The act entailed: • decriminalizing homosexual relations, • legalizing abortion • granting women equal pension rights • imposing new gun ownership laws • criminalizing drunk driving

  4. Social policies and challenges • Trudeau had a vision of Canada becoming a “Just Society” • "I've always dreamt of a society where each person should be able to fulfill himself to the extent of his capabilities as a human being, a society where inhibitions to equality would be eradicated. This means providing individual freedoms, and equality of opportunity, health, and education, and I conceive of politics as a series of decisions to create this society." • - Pierre Elliott Trudeau

  5. Official Languages Act, 1969 • In 1969 the Canadian gov’t passed the Official Languages Act making English & French both official languages • Central feature of Trudeau’s new federalism • Mandated that the federal government conduct its business & provide government services in English or French • Federal employees who dealt with Canadians ha to speak both languages

  6. Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 • The Charter forms the first 35 sections of the Constitution Act signed by Queen Elizabeth on April 17, 1982 • In line with Trudeau’s vision of an independent and nationalist nation that prioritized fundamental human rights and freedoms • Sought to prevent laws that unfairly discriminate or take away human rights

  7. Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 Continued • prohibited discrimination against individuals based on: ethnicity, gender, religion or sexuality • the legal protection of the rights of minorities to their language and education in that language

  8. Reception of the Charter • The Charter was received with both excitement and anxiety • People rejoiced with the fact that the charter (as part of the constitution) has the power to expand and protect human rights • Others were wary b/c it would transfer some power from elected officials to the courts  Some saw this as anti-democratic

  9. Multiculturalism Act, 1987 • Not passed until 1987, three years after Trudeau had resigned as Prime minister & retired from public office • Trudeau’s time as Prime Minister = responsible for the gradual redirection of Canada towards a public policy that encouraged Canadian’s to be loyal citizens to Canada while celebrating their cultural heritage • While Trudeau was Prime Minister the initiative was not given the higher levels of federal funding that it later received

  10. Reaction to the Multiculturalism Initiative • The initiative was seen as a way for Trudeau to deny the demands of the Quebecois who thought of Canada was bi-cultural Vs.

  11. Economic Policies and Challenges • Economy began to slow down in early 1970 • By mid 1970s – high inflation and high unemployment rates

  12. Anti-Inflation Act of Oct 1975 • Applied to all federal employees and private companies with 500 or more employees • Farmers and fishers, for example, were exempt from price controls • Increases in wages were capped at 10% in first year, 8% in second year and 6% in third year

  13. Public Reaction • Many were against wage controls because it limited their earning potential • Some workers, esp low-paid, workers in schools, hospitals and municipal govt, were affected the most • Unions were severely restricted in their ability to bargain for higher pay Largest organized labour protest in North American history led by Labour Council on Oct 14, 1976 – more than 1 million workers walked off their jobs

  14. RESULT • Wage and price controls  removed in 1978 • Anti- Inflation Board  dissolved in 1979 • FAILURE for Trudeau

  15. Canadian Energy Policy BACKGROUND: • 1973 Arab-Israeli war  increase in cost of oil • Arab countries drastically reduced oil exports to US thus Alberta oil became more valuable • Trudeau put tax on Alb’s oil exports to help pay for oil in central and eastern Canada

  16. Canada’s oil reserves had been under control of US corporations thus most of the profits went to US • NDP first proposed idea of creating govt-run oil company • Liberals had minority govt thus NDP held balance of power Petro-Canada was created • Became symbol of Canadian nationalism

  17. National Energy Program Oct 1980 • Govt wanted more control over country’s energy • Trudeau declared that Alb’s oil profits must be shared throughout the country Three Main Objectives: • Increase Canadian ownership in oil industry • Make Canada self-sufficient in oil • Make more money for fed govt

  18. Alberta’s Reaction • Believed that NEP was designed to strip their province of its natural wealth • Premier of Alb, Lougheed, announced that oil shipments to rest of Canada would be cut • NEP was revised so that Canadian oil price = world price • NEP left legacy of Albertan toward anger toward Trudeau

  19. Trudeau’s Economic Legacy • Canada's national debt = $18 billion when he took office • $200 billion when he left an increase of 1,100 % • Yes this is true!!!!

  20. Political policies and challenges

  21. Immigration act of 1976 • Came in to effect in 1978 • Gave more power to provinces to set their own immigration laws • Established three categories of immigrants: • Refugee Status –those forced to leave their country because of invasion, disaster or persecution • Family Status – Sponsored by family members • Independent Status – “POINTS SYSTEM” assigns points for education, experience, language, adaptability and age

  22. WHIte paper – June 1976 • In 1969 Trudeau scraped 1876 Indian Act and proposed June 1969 “White Paper”

  23. INTENTIONS: • integrate Aboriginal Canadians into the rest of society, rather than treat them as a separate group • advancement of individual rights instead of collective rights of Aboriginal people • Responsibility of Aboriginal people services would be on provincial govt Wanted to eliminate “Indian” as a distinct legal status in hopes of achieving greater equality

  24. Reaction to white paper • many natives opposed these plans • creation of National Indian Brotherhood, leaders claimed they were interested in self-govt not assimilation • Trudeau withdrew White Paper and did very little to deal with this issue until 1973 with Supreme Court decision confirming legality of Aboriginal land claims

  25. The October Crisis, 1970 • 1970 the Quebecois separatism took a violent turn • The FLQ kidnapped British Trade Commissioner, James Cross and later the Quebec Minister of Labour, Pierre Laporte • Trudeau responded by ordering the army to patrol the streets and gov’t buildings in Ottawa

  26. War Measures act • Trudeau then invoked the War Measures Act (1914) • suspended civil liberties • allowed the police to search and seize people without a warrant • arrest suspects without being charged with an offence or being brought to trial

  27. Result of the war measures act • The October Crisis was the first time that the act had been invoked during peacetime • Hundreds of citizens (mainly Quebecois) were detained by police for suspected FLQ connections • Some were jailed for months without being charged • Pierre Laporte was murdered • James cross returned • Increased support for political means of attaining independence

  28. Trudeau’s decision to invoke the act was a great source of controversy • Tommy Douglas, leader of the federal NDP, condemned the actions of the FLQ, yet criticized the government for its response • Likened the War Measures Act to “using a sledgehammer to crack a peanut”

  29. Constitution act, 1982 – Repatriation • Brought the country’s constitution to Canada from Britain for the first time • Partition refers to making the constitution only amendable by Canada without the involvement of the British Parliament • April 17, 1982, Queen Elizabeth II declared Canada’s independence from the British Parliament

  30. Pierre Trudeau Repatriating the Constitution

  31. Canada’s Foreign Policies

  32. Foreign Policies • Relations with USA • Relations with the world • Peace Initiative • Relations with China • Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) • NATO • Arctic

  33. CANADA AND US RELATIONS • Had no feel for American society, politics, or popular culture • Relations with US Presidents varied

  34. US RELATIONS Cont. • Trudeau said the overwhelming American presence in Canada posed “a danger to our national identity from a cultural, economic and perhaps even military point of view.” • Nixon said “It’s time for us to recognize,” he stated, “that we have very separate identities; that we have significant differences; and that nobody’s interests are furthered when these realities are obscured.”

  35. US RELATIONS Cont. • Nixon gov’t tried to pressure Canada to participate in the Vietnam War peace talks. • condemned the Nixon administration for prolonging the war and refused to help • disliked the US Strategic Defense Initiative, known as “Star Wars.” • Believed that Star Wars would increase arms race

  36. US RELATIONS Cont. • Press conference in 1983, expressed concern over US policy in Central and South America • Complained that US supported Chile, El Salvador, and Guatemala which were countries that abused human rights • 1983 – allowed the US to test the accuracy of cruise missiles, without war heads, in northern Alberta • Aboriginals and many environmentalists objected • However courts ruled against them, and the testing continued

  37. CANADA & THE WORLD • His efforts in foreign affairs gained him worldwide respect • “a modest power” • concentrate on its internal problems • Embarked on a peace mission to reduce nuclear tensions between Soviet Union and US • met with little success

  38. CANADA & THE WORLD CONT. • Established friendly relations with Cuba • Believed that Canada should keep its own independent foreign policy • Strongly opposed apartheid in South Africa • 1970 – imposed an arms embargo on South America • 1977 – stopped all trade assistance programs


  40. Trudeau believed that all aspects of Canada’s foreign and defense policy must firstly serve the country’s national interests. • NATO did not do this. • 1969, Trudeau made the decision to withdraw half of the Canadian force from NATO Europe • NATO had grown too large in Canadian peacemaking NATO

  41. ARCTIC • Asserted authority over its Arctic waters because its responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment. • 1970, Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act • Anticipated a whole body of vital international law and of practice regarding the regulation of the transport by sea of bulk cargoes. • Article 234 in Law of Sea Convention • To enhance Canada’s control over its arctic waters

  42. Peace Initiative August 30, 1983 Soviets shot down Korean Airlines Boeing 747 -10 Canadians died. Trudeau wanted to take action! Sept. 21, 1983- went to 23 heads of states and wanted to spread the world that “world leaders had an obligation to urge the superpowers to back off.” Purpose-reduce Cold War tensions, Reduce nuclear arms by asking help from other countries.

  43. Peace Initiative con’t • Travelled: • France • Netherlands • Belgium • Italy • West Germany • United Kingdom • United States • Soviet Union • United Nations in New York • Got support from Premier Zhao Ziyang • Result- East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Romania were cooperating with Trudeau to end the tensions with Soviet Union- a step towards ending tensions with the USA. • The initiative led Trudeau to receive the Albert Einstein Peace Prize on November 13, 1984.

  44. Relations with China • Wanted to end China’s isolation from the rest of the world • US opposed this • First time in more than 20 years that China had diplomatic relations in North America

  45. Relations with China cont. • 1970- Canada recognized People’s Republic of China (PRC) • Become largest trading partner • Became friends with China without USA’s approval- reduce dependence from USA

  46. Great lakes Water Qulaity agreement (GLWQA) • Agreement b/w Canada and USA. • Great Lakes shared between Canada and USA. • Drinking water to millions of Canadians and Americans • April 15th, 1972- Trudeau and Nixon signed the agreement. • Purpose- improve environmental conditions in the Great Lakes. • 1978 purpose- "to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem.” • Being revised till today!

  47. Kinsman, Jeremy. "Who Is My Neighbour? Trudeau and Foreign Policy." N.p., Aug. 2002. Web. 25 Mar. 2013. • "Great Lakes." Government of Canada, Environment Canada. Environment Canada, n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2013. • "The Canada Page." The Canada Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2013. • Oliver, Dean F. "Canada and NATO." Canadian War Museum. Canadian Museum Civilization Corporation, n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2013. • Young, Oran R. "Canada and the United States in the Arctic: Testing the Special Relationship." Canada and the United States in the Arctic: Testing the Special Relationship. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2013. • Baldwin, Douglas, and Patricia Baldwin. Prime Ministers of Canada: Trudeau Era.Canada: Library and Archives Canda Cataloguing in Publication, 2007. Print. Work Citied

  48. THE END